Joaquin (was TD11 - Atlantic Ocean)

Satellites See Hurricane Joaquin Moving Through Northern Atlantic

 

NASA and NOAA satellites have been watching Hurricane Joaquin move to the northeast through the northern Atlantic Ocean. Although Joaquin is moving away from the U.S. and Canada it is still generating dangerous surf conditions.

This visible image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite shows Hurricane Joaquin at 1445 UTC (10:45 a.m. EDT) to the east of New England.
Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

The National Hurricane Center noted on October 6 that "Swells generated by Joaquin will continue to affect Bermuda the next day or so. Swells are affecting much of the mid-Atlantic and northeast coast of the United States and are increasing along coastal areas of Atlantic Canada, and these swells are expected to continue for the next day or two. Life-threatening surf and rip current conditions are likely in association with these swells."

On October 6 at 0529 UTC (1:29 a.m. EDT) NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Hurricane Joaquin and the AIRS instrument aboard captured infrared data that revealed cloud top temperatures. AIRS data was made into a false-colored image at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. AIRS showed powerful thunderstorms around the center with cloud top temperatures near -63F/-53C.

A visible image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showed Hurricane Joaquin at 1445 UTC (10:45 a.m. EDT) far to the east of New England. The storm still appeared rounded with bands of thunderstorms surrounding the low-level center. The image was created by NASA/NOAA's GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Hurricane Joaquin was located near latitude 38.3 North, longitude 59.6 West. Joaquin was moving toward the northeast near 18 mph (30 kph).  The National Hurricane Center expects a turn toward the east-northeast with some further increase in forward speed expected later today through Wednesday, October 7. Maximum sustained winds have decreased to near 80 mph (130 kph) and additional slow weakening is forecast.

On October 6 at 0529 UTC NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Hurricane Joaquin and saw powerful thunderstorms around the center (purple) with cloud top temperatures near -63F/-53C.
Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

 

Joaquin is expected to become extratropical late Wednesday, October 7. That's because of increasing southwesterly wind shear and cooler waters along Joaquin's track. In addition, cooler and drier air to the north of the storm is expected to start affecting the circulation over the next two days, further weakening the storm. 

The National Hurricane Center expects the storm to speed east across the Atlantic where it may affect Ireland and the United Kingdom by October 10.

Oct. 05, 2015 - NASA's Aqua and Terra Satellites Analyze Hurricane Joaquin Near Bermuda

Hurricane Joaquin maintained its comma shape as it brought heavy rains, strong winds and ocean swells to Bermuda on October 5 when NASA satellites passed overhead.

On Oct. 4, 2015 at 15:20 UTC (11:20) NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Hurricane Joaquin (11L) over Bermuda.
Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

Infrared data of the hurricane was captured on Oct. 5 at 06:29 UTC (2:29 a.m. EDT) when NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard Aqua took a look at the storm's temperatures and those of the surrounding ocean. At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a false-colored infrared image was created using the AIRS data that showed powerful, heavy rainmaking storms with cold cloud tops colder than -63F/-53C in a comma shape. AIRS data showed a small area of cloud tops colder than -94F/-70C just west of the center. Those powerful thunderstorms circled the center and extended east and southeast in a thick band.

Earlier, on Oct. 4, 2015 at 15:20 UTC (11:20 a.m.) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of Hurricane Joaquin that showed the northeastern quadrant of the storm was over Bermuda. The eye was still visible in the Terra image, although somewhat obscured by clouds. On October 5, microwave satellite data showed a well-defined small eye still existed, which was also seen in Bermuda Doppler radar.

At 11 a.m. EDT on October 5, a Tropical Storm Warning was still in effect for Bermuda. At that time, the center of Hurricane Joaquin was located near latitude 35.0 North and longitude 64.6 West. That's about 185 miles (300 km) north of Bermuda. Joaquin was moving toward the north-northeast near 13 mph (20 kph), and the National Hurricane Center expects a turn toward the northeast followed by a turn toward the east-northeast on Tuesday. On the forecast track, the

center of Joaquin will continue to move away from Bermuda.

This false-colored infrared image from the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite shows the powerful (purple), heavy rainmaking storms with cold cloud tops within Hurricane Joaquin on Oct. 5 at 6:29 UTC.
Credits: NASA AIRS, Ed Olsen

 

Maximum sustained winds are near 85 mph (140 kph) with higher gusts. Gradual weakening is forecast during the next 48 hours, and Joaquin is expected to transition to a large extratropical low pressure system on Wednesday, October 6. The estimated minimum central pressure is 964 millibars.

According to NHC, a sustained wind speed of 43 mph (69 kph) and a gust to 58 mph (93 kph) were reported at the Bermuda International Airport in the late morning on October 4.

Joaquin continued moving away from Bermuda but tropical storm conditions continued on the island.

Oct. 05, 2015 - NASA IMERG Measures Historic Rainfall from a Nor'easter and Joaquin

NASA's Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission (IMERG) data were used to estimate the historic amount of rain that fell in the Carolinas and from Hurricane Joaquin over the Bahamas.
NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite measured record rainfall that fell over the Carolinas from September 26 to October 5 from a plume of moisture from Hurricane Joaquin when it was located over the Bahamas and moved to Bermuda. The IMERG showed highest rainfall totals near 1,000 mm (39.3 inches) in a small area of South Carolina and rainfall between 700 and 900 mm (27.5 and 37.4 inches) over a large area of South Carolina.
Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

Oct. 02, 2015 - Update #2 - Hurricane Joaquin May Be Experiencing Eyewall Replacement in NASA Imagery

The National Hurricane Center indicated on October 2 that powerful Hurricane Joaquin may be experiencing eyewall replacement. The eye was visible on NASA Aqua satellite imagery October 1, but obscured twelve hours later. In addition, NASA's RapidScat instrument helped determine what part of the storm had the strongest winds

NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Hurricane Joaquin over Bahamas on Oct. 1 at 17:55 UTC (1:55 p.m. EDT).

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

An Inside Look at Joaquin's Strongest Winds

On September 30 at about 7:40 p.m. EDT, the International Space Station passed over Hurricane Joaquin in the Bahamas. The RapidScat instrument which flies aboard ISS measures sustained winds over open ocean and saw the hurricane's strongest sustained winds in the north and northwestern quadrants, stronger than 36 meters per second (80 mph/129.6 kph).

Visible Imagery

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Hurricane Joaquin over Bahamas on Oct. 1 at 17:55 UTC (1:55 p.m. EDT). In the image, the eye was still visible. However, twelve hours later, visible imagery from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showed an eye obscured by clouds which forecasters at NOAA said could indicate that the eyewall of the storm was undergoing a replacement.

Eyewall Replacement

In powerful hurricanes, a new eye begins to develop around the old eye. The new eye gradually decreases in diameter and replaces the old eye. When that happens, the intensity of the hurricane usually decreases. Despite the fact that eyewall replacement can mean a weakening in a powerful hurricane, it can also spread the hurricane force winds out over a larger area.

National Hurricane Center (NHC) Forecaster Brennan noted in the 5 a.m. EDT NHC discussion on October 2,"The eye of Joaquin has not been apparent in recent infrared imagery. The last pass of the Hurricane Hunter aircraft through the center around 04Z [midnight] showed indications of a double wind maximum at flight level, which could indicate that an eyewall replacement cycle is underway.

On Sept. 30 at 7:40 p.m. EDT, RapidScat saw strongest sustained winds in Joaquin's north and northwestern quadrants, stronger than 36 meters per second (80 mph/129.6 kph).
Credits: NASA/JPL, Doug Tyler

 

The last report from the aircraft indicated that the central pressure still around 935 millibars. The initial intensity remains 115 knots pending the arrival of the next aircraft before 12Z [8 a.m. EDT]. Some fluctuations in intensity are possible during the next 12 to 24 hours due to eyewall replacement."

Warnings and Watches

On October 2, a Hurricane Warning was in effect for the central Bahamas, northwestern Bahamas including the Abacos, Berry Islands, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama Island, and New Providence, and The Acklins, Crooked Island, and Mayaguana in the southeastern Bahamas. A Hurricane Watch was in effect for Bimini and Andros Island.

In addition, a Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the remainder of the southeastern Bahamas including the Turks and Caicos Islands, Andros Island, Cuban provinces of Camaguey, Los Tunas, Holguin, and Guantanamo.

Latest Update on Joaquin from the National Hurricane Center

At 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC), the center of Hurricane Joaquin was located near latitude 23.4 North, longitude 74.8 West. Joaquin was drifting toward the northwest near 3 mph (6 kph). The NHC expects a faster northward motion to begin later today (Oct. 2), followed by a turn toward the northeast and an increase in forward speed tonight and Saturday. On the forecast track, the core of the strongest winds of Joaquin will continue moving over portions of the central and northwestern Bahamas today. Joaquin will begin to move away from the Bahamas tonight and Saturday.

Maximum sustained winds are near 130 mph (215 kph) with higher gusts. Joaquin is a dangerous category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. Some fluctuations in intensity are possible during the next 24 hours. Slow weakening is expected to begin on Saturday.

Hurricane force winds extend outward up to 50 miles (85 km) from the center and tropical storm force winds extend outward up to 205 miles (335 km). The minimum central pressure just reported by an Air Force Reserve Hurricane Hunter aircraft is 937 millibars.

For the latest forecasts, visit the NHC website: www.nhc.noaa.gov.

The NHC noted that gradual weakening is forecast after October 3 as the cyclone encounters increasing southwesterly wind shear, but Joaquin is expected to remain a powerful hurricane for the next several days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Oct. 01, 2015 - Update #3 - Satellites Show Joaquin Become a Category 4 Hurricane

Hurricane Joaquin had become a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale by 2 p.m. EDT on Oct. 1. At NASA, satellite imagery from NOAA's GOES-East satellite was compiled into an animation that showed the hurricane strengthening. Earlier in the day, NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite saw powerful thunderstorms within, indicating further strengthening.
This animation of images captured from September 29 to October 1 from NOAA's GOES-East satellite shows Hurricane Joaquin become a major hurricane in the Bahamas. TRT: 00:32
Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

The GOES-East satellite is managed by NOAA, and at NASA's GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, imagery from GOES-East we compiled into an animation. The infrared and visible imagery from Sept. 29 to Oct. 1 from showed Hurricane Joaquin become a major hurricane in the Bahamas.

Earlier in the morning, NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Joaquin at 06:10 UTC (2:10 a.m. EDT) as it was strengthening from a Category 2 to a Category 3 hurricane. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard captured an infrared image that showed cloud top temperatures colder than -63F/-53C, indicative of powerful storms within the hurricane. NASA research has shown that storms with cloud tops that high (and that stretch that high into the troposphere) have the capability to generate heavy rain.

On Oct. 1, a Hurricane Warning was in effect for the Central Bahamas, Northwestern Bahamas including the Abacos, Berry Islands, Eleuthera, Grand Bahama Island, and New Providence, The Acklins, Crooked Island, and Mayaguana in the southeastern Bahamas. A Hurricane Watch was in effect for Bimini and Andros Island, and a Tropical Storm Warning was in effect for the remainder of the southeastern Bahamas excluding the Turks and Caicos Islands and Andros Island.

Marci - - EA1BYC